These are underlain by insulating blubber that would have augmented streamlining, buoyancy and homeothermy. Additionally, we identify endogenous proteinaceous and lipid constituents, together with keratinocytes and branched melanophores that contain eumelanin pigment. The data supporting our findings are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Motani, R. Evolution of fish-shaped reptiles Reptilia: Ichthyopterygia in their physical environments and constraints.
Fraas, E. Ueber die Finne von Ichthyosaurus. Vereins vaterl. Whitear, M. On the colour of an ichthyosaur. Wiman, C. Senckenbergiana 27 , 1—11 Lingham-Soliar, T. Rare soft tissue preservation showing fibrous structures in an ichthyosaur from the Lower Lias Jurassic of England. B , — Martill, D. Prokaryote mats replacing soft tissues in Mesozoic marine reptiles.
Smithwick, F. On the purported presence of fossilized collagen fibres in an ichthyosaur and a theropod dinosaur. Palaeontology 60 , — Wyneken, J. Press, Baltimore, Cozzi, B.
Reeb, D. Structure of the integument of southern right whales, Eubalaena australis. Landmann, L. Alibardi, L. Ultrastructural features of skin pigmentation in the lizard Heloderma suspectum with emphasis on xanto-melanophores. Acta Zool. Wilby, P. Taxonomic trends in the resolution of detail preserved in fossil phosphatized soft tissues. Geobios 30 , — Gupta, N. The fossilization of eurypterids: a result of molecular transformation. Palaios 22 , — Rapid incorporation of lipids into macromolecules during experimental decay of invertebrates: initiation of geopolymer formation.
Preservation of uropygial gland lipids in a million-year-old bird. B , Jackson, M.
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Lipids and cholesterol clefts in the lacunar cells of snake skin. Pan, Y. Molecular evidence of keratin and melanosomes in feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird Eoconfuciusornis. Natl Acad. USA , E—E Moyer, A. Keratin durability has implications for the fossil record: results from a 10 year feather degradation experiment. Toni, M. Soft epidermis of a scaleless snake lacks beta-keratin. Iverson, S. Davenport, J. Fat head: an analysis of head and neck insulation in the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea.
Fartasch, M. Mineralization of collagen and elastic fibers in superficial dystrophic cutaneous calcification: an ultrastructural study. Dermatologica , — Balakrishnan, S. Studies on calcification efficacy of stingray fish skin collagen for possible use as scaffold for bone regeneration. Tissue Eng. Lindgren, J. Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.
Nature , — The Anatomy of Sea Turtles U. Shirihai, H. Press, Princeton, Vinther, J. A guide to the field of palaeo colour: melanin and other pigments can fossilise: reconstructing colour patterns from ancient organisms can give new insights to ecology and behaviour. BioEssays 37 , — Marshall, J. Press, Cambridge, Martinez-Levasseur, L.
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Acute sun damage and photoprotective responses in whales. James, M. Behaviour of leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea , during the migratory cycle. Bernard, A.
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Regulation of body temperature by some Mesozoic marine reptiles. Science , — Nakajima, Y. Osteohistology of the Early Triassic ichthyopterygian reptile Utatsusaurus hataii : implications for early ichthyosaur biology. Acta Palaeontol. Kear, B. Marine reptiles from the Lower Cretaceous of South Australia: elements of a high-latitude cold-water assemblage. Palaeontology 49 , — Thiel, V. Grice, K. Ito, S.
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Acid hydrolysis reveals a low but constant level of pheomelanin in human black to brown hair. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. Download references. We thank E. Schroeter for scientific advice. Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Listen to the words and spell through all three levels.
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Definition of crypsis. Their primary defense is crypsis ; their pattern of coloration varies geographically to match the substrate, and their spines obscure their body outlines, making them difficult to see. First Known Use of crypsis , in the meaning defined above. Learn More about crypsis. Resources for crypsis Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared.
Dictionary Entries near crypsis cry out cry out against something cry out something crypsis crypt- crypt cryptal. Statistics for crypsis Look-up Popularity. Time Traveler for crypsis The first known use of crypsis was in See more words from the same year. Comments on crypsis What made you want to look up crypsis? Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary.
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